Accounting Policies, by Policy (Policies)
|9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2022
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|Basis of Presentation
Basis of Presentation
The financial statements and accompanying notes have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”).
The accompanying unaudited financial statements of the Company as of September 30, 2022 have been prepared in accordance with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X and, accordingly, they do not include all information and footnote disclosures required by accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. (“GAAP”). The Company believes the footnotes and other disclosures made in the financial statements are adequate for a fair presentation of the results of the interim periods presented. The financial statements include all adjustments (solely of a normal recurring nature) which are, in the opinion of management, necessary to make the information presented not misleading. You should read these financial statements and the accompanying notes in conjunction with the financial statements and notes thereto included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on March 31, 2022.
All common share amounts and per share amounts have been adjusted to reflect a 1-for-4.3 reverse stock split of the Company’s common stock that was effected on June 21, 2021.
|Use of Estimates
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the periods presented. Management believes that these estimates and assumptions are reasonable; however, actual results may differ and could have a material effect on future results of operations and financial position. Significant items subject to such estimates and assumptions include progress estimates for material third party research and development contracts, stock-based compensation and fair value of the Company’s common stock prior to the Company’s IPO. Actual results may materially differ from those estimates.
The Company operates and manages its business as one reportable operating segment. The Company’s Chief Executive Officer, who is the chief operating decision maker, reviews financial information on an aggregate basis for purposes of allocating resources and evaluating financial performance.
|Risks and Uncertainties
Risks and Uncertainties
The Company operates in a dynamic and highly competitive industry and believes that changes in any of the following areas could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s future financial position, results of operations, or cash flows: ability to obtain future financing; advances and trends in new technologies and industry standards; results of clinical trials; regulatory approval and market acceptance of the Company’s products; development of sales channels; certain strategic relationships; litigation or claims against the Company related to intellectual property, product, regulatory, or other matters; and the Company’s ability to attract and retain employees necessary to support its growth.
The Company’s general business strategy may be adversely affected by any such economic downturns (including the current downturn related to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic), volatile business environments and continued unstable or unpredictable economic and market conditions.
Any product candidates developed by the Company will require approvals from the FDA or other international regulatory agencies prior to commercial sales. There can be no assurance that the Company’s current product candidates or any future product candidates will receive the necessary approvals. If the Company is denied approval, approval is delayed or the Company is unable to maintain approval, it could have a materially adverse impact on the Company.
The Company has expended and will continue to expend substantial funds to complete the research, development and clinical testing of its product candidates. The Company also will be required to expend additional funds to establish commercial-scale manufacturing arrangements and to provide for the marketing and distribution of products that receive regulatory approval. The Company will require additional funds to commercialize its products. The Company is unable to entirely fund these efforts with its current financial resources. If adequate funds are unavailable on a timely basis from operations or additional sources of financing, the Company may have to delay, reduce the scope of or eliminate one or more of its research or development programs, which would materially and adversely affect its business, financial condition and operations.
The Company is dependent upon the services of its employees, consultants and other third parties.
|Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant, and equipment are recorded at cost less accumulated depreciation. Additions, improvements, and major renewals or replacements that substantially extend the useful life of an asset are capitalized. Repairs and maintenance expenditures are expensed as incurred. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the related assets, which range from three to seven years. Leasehold improvements are amortized on a straight-line basis over the shorter of their estimated useful lives or the remaining lease term.
Management assesses the carrying value of property and equipment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. If there is indication of impairment, management prepares an estimate of future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset and its eventual disposition. If these cash flows are less than the carrying amount of the asset, an impairment loss is recognized to write down the asset to its estimated fair value at that time. At September 30, 2022, management determined there were no impairments of the Company’s property and equipment.
The Company determines whether a contract is, or contains, a lease at inception. Right-of-use assets represent the Company’s right to use an underlying asset during the lease term, and lease liabilities represent the Company’s obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. Right-of-use assets and lease liabilities are recognized at lease commencement based upon the estimated present value of unpaid lease payments over the lease term. The Company uses its incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at lease commencement in determining the present value of unpaid lease payments.
|Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company’s financial instruments include cash, prepaid expenses, and accounts payable, and in prior periods also included convertible notes and a loan from the Chief Executive Officer and stockholder of the Company. The carrying amounts of these items approximate fair value as of December 31, 2021 and September 30, 2022 due to their short-term nature.
|Concentration of Credit Risk
Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentration of credit risk consist of cash. All of the Company’s cash was deposited in one account at a financial institution, and the account balance may at times exceed federally insured limits. Management believes that the Company is not exposed to significant credit risk due to the financial strength of the depository institution in which the cash is held.
Prepaid expenses represent costs incurred that benefit future periods. These costs are amortized over specific time periods based on the agreements.
The Company implemented ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. These included the development of new policies based on the five-step model provided in the new revenue standard, ongoing contract review requirements, and gathering of information provided for disclosures. The Company recognizes revenue from product sales or services rendered when control of the promised goods are transferred to a counterparty in an amount that reflects the consideration to which we expect to be entitled in exchange for those goods and services. To achieve this core principle, we apply the following five steps: identify the contract with the client, identify the performance obligations in the contract, determine the transaction price, allocate the transaction price to performance obligations in the contract and recognize revenues when or as the Company satisfies a performance obligation.
|Research and Development Expenses
Research and Development Expenses
Substantially all of the Company’s research and development expenses consist of expenses incurred in connection with the development of the Company’s product candidates. These expenses include fees paid to third parties to conduct certain research and development activities on the Company’s behalf and related progress estimates for those activities, consulting costs, costs for laboratory supplies, product acquisition and license costs, certain payroll and personnel-related expenses, including salaries and bonuses, employee benefit costs and stock-based compensation expenses for the Company’s research and product development employees and allocated overheads, including information technology costs and utilities. The Company expenses both internal and external research and development expenses as they are incurred.
|General and Administrative Expenses
General and Administrative Expenses
General and administrative expenses represent personnel costs for employees involved in general corporate functions, including finance, accounting, legal and human resources, among others. Additional costs included in general and administrative expenses consist of professional fees for legal (including patent costs), audit and other consulting services, stock-based compensation and other general corporate overhead expenses as well as costs from a service agreement with a related party (See Note 8).
The Company expenses all costs as incurred in connection with patent licenses and applications (including direct application fees, and the legal and consulting expenses related to making such applications) and such costs are reflected in general and administrative expenses in the statements of operations.
The Company accounts for stock-based compensation for all share-based payments made to employees and non-employees by estimating the fair value on the date of grant and recognizing compensation expense over the requisite service period on a straight-line basis. The Company recognizes forfeitures related to stock-based compensation as they occur. The Company estimates the fair value of stock options using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. The Black-Scholes model requires the input of subjective assumptions, including expected common stock volatility, expected dividend yield, expected term, risk-free interest rate, and the estimated fair value of the Company’s underlying common stock on the date of grant.
|Common Stock Valuations
Common Stock Valuations
Prior to the Company’s IPO, the fair value of common stock was estimated with the assistance of an independent third-party valuation expert when issuing stock options and computing their estimated stock-based compensation expense. The assumptions underlying these valuations represented management’s best estimates, which involved inherent uncertainties and the application of significant levels of management judgment. In order to determine the fair value, the Company considered, among other things, contemporaneous transactions involving the sale of common stock to unrelated third parties, the lack of marketability of the common stock and the market performance of comparable publicly traded companies.
Subsequent to the IPO, the Company determines the fair value of common stock from closing prices as quoted on the NASDAQ exchange.
The Company accounts for corporate income taxes in accordance with GAAP as stipulated in ASC, Topic 740, Income Taxes, (“ASC 740”). This standard entails the use of the asset and liability method of computing the provision for income tax expense. Current tax expense results from corporate tax payable at the Federal and California jurisdictions for the Company, which relate to the current accounting period. Deferred tax expense results primarily from temporary differences between financial statement and tax return reporting, which result in additional tax payable in future periods. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the differences between the financial statement basis and tax basis of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates and law. Net future tax benefits are subject to a valuation allowance when management expects that it is more-likely-than-not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.
Current and non-current tax assets and liabilities are based upon an estimate of taxes refundable or payable for each of the jurisdictions in which the Company is subject to tax. In the ordinary course of business there is inherent uncertainty in quantifying income tax positions. The Company assess income tax positions and record the largest amount of tax benefit with a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement with a taxing authority that has full knowledge of all relevant information. For those income tax positions where it is not more likely than not that a tax benefit will be sustained, no tax benefit is recognized in the financial statements. The Company’s policy is to recognize interest or penalties related to income tax matters in income tax expense.
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 eliminated the option to immediately deduct research and development expenditures in the year incurred under Section 174, which became effective January 1, 2022. We are monitoring legislation for any further changes to Section 174 and the impact, if any, to the financial statements in 2022.
Comprehensive loss includes all changes in equity (net assets) during a period from non-owner sources. There were no elements of other comprehensive income (loss) in the periods presented, as a result comprehensive loss is the same as net loss for each period presented.
|Net Loss per Share
Net Loss per Share
Basic net loss per common share is calculated by dividing the net loss by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period, without consideration of potentially dilutive securities. Diluted net loss per share is computed by dividing the net loss by the weighted-average number of common shares and potentially dilutive securities outstanding for the period. For purposes of the diluted net loss per share calculation, common stock options and warrants are considered to be potentially dilutive securities. Basic and diluted net loss per share is presented in conformity with the two-class method required for participating securities. The Company has no participating securities and as such, the net loss was attributed entirely to common stockholders. As the Company has reported a net loss for all periods presented, diluted net loss per common share is the same as basic net loss per common share for those periods. All common share amounts and per share amounts have been adjusted to reflect a 1-for-4.3 reverse stock split of the Company’s common stock that was effectuated on June 21, 2021.
|Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) or other standard setting bodies and adopted by the Company as of the specified effective date. Unless otherwise discussed, the impact of recently issued standards that are not yet effective are not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s financial position or results of operations upon adoption.
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06, Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity, which simplifies the accounting for convertible instruments. ASU 2020-06 eliminates certain models that require separate accounting for embedded conversion features. Additionally, among other changes, the guidance eliminates certain of the conditions for equity classification for contracts in an entity’s own equity. The guidance also requires entities to use the if-converted method for all convertible instruments in the diluted earnings per share calculation and include the effect of share settlement for instruments that may be settled in cash or shares, except for certain liability-classified share-based payment awards. This guidance is effective for the Company beginning in the first quarter of 2022 and must be applied using either a modified or full retrospective approach. Early adoption is permitted, but no earlier than annual periods beginning after December 15, 2020. The Company adopted the standard on January 1, 2022 using a modified approach, and the adoption did not result in any adjustments on the Company’s financial statements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). This ASU requires a lessee to recognize in the statement of financial position a liability to make lease payments (the lease liability) and a right-of-use asset representing its right to use the underlying asset for the leases with a term of greater than 12 months. This ASU is effective for the Company’s fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, with early adoption permitted. The Company has adopted this standard effective as of January 1, 2019. The Company chose to adopt the package of practical expedients available from the FASB. As a policy election, the Company chose to expense and amortize, on a straight line, the leases with terms less than 12 months. The adoption of this standard did not have a material effect on the Company’s financial statements.