Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
6 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2021
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies


Basis of Presentation


The financial statements and accompanying notes have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”).


All common share amounts and per share amounts have been adjusted to reflect a 1-for-4.3 reverse stock split of the Company’s common stock that was effected on June 21, 2021.


Use of Estimates


The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the periods presented. Management believes that these estimates and assumptions are reasonable; however, actual results may differ and could have a material effect on future results of operations and financial position. Significant items subject to such estimates and assumptions include deferred tax asset valuation allowance, unrecognized tax benefits, stock-based compensation and fair value of Company’s common stock. Actual results may materially differ from those estimates.


Segment Information


The Company operates and manages its business as one reportable operating segment. The Company’s Chief Executive Officer, who is the chief operating decision maker, reviews financial information on an aggregate basis for purposes of allocating resources and evaluating financial performance.


Risks and Uncertainties


The Company operates in a dynamic and highly competitive industry and believes that changes in any of the following areas could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s future financial position, results of operations, or cash flows: ability to obtain future financing; advances and trends in new technologies and industry standards; results of clinical trials; regulatory approval and market acceptance of the Company’s products; development of sales channels; certain strategic relationships; litigation or claims against the Company related to intellectual property, product, regulatory, or other matters; and the Company’s ability to attract and retain employees necessary to support its growth.


The Company’s general business strategy may be adversely affected by any such economic downturns (including the current downturn related to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic), volatile business environments and continued unstable or unpredictable economic and market conditions.


Any product candidates developed by the Company will require approvals from the FDA or other international regulatory agencies prior to commercial sales. There can be no assurance that the Company’s current product candidates or any future product candidates will receive the necessary approvals. If the Company is denied approval, approval is delayed or the Company is unable to maintain approval, it could have a materially adverse impact on the Company.


The Company has expended and will continue to expend substantial funds to complete the research, development and clinical testing of its product candidates. The Company also will be required to expend additional funds to establish commercial-scale manufacturing arrangements and to provide for the marketing and distribution of products that receive regulatory approval. The Company will require additional funds to commercialize its products. The Company is unable to entirely fund these efforts with its current financial resources. If adequate funds are unavailable on a timely basis from operations or additional sources of financing, the Company may have to delay, reduce the scope of or eliminate one or more of its research or development programs, which would materially and adversely affect its business, financial condition and operations.


The Company is dependent upon the services of its employees, consultants and other third parties.


Deferred Offering Costs


Deferred offering costs, consisting of legal, accounting and other fees and costs relating to the Company’s Initial Public Offering (“IPO”) are capitalized and recorded as a current asset on the balance sheets. The deferred offering costs will be offset against the proceeds received upon the closing of the IPO, which occurred on July 15, 2021. There were $0.2 million and $0.9 million of deferred offering costs capitalized as of December 31, 2020 and June 30, 2021, respectively.


Fair Value of Financial Instruments


The Company’s financial instruments include cash, prepaid expenses, accounts payable, convertible notes and a loan from the Chief Executive Officer and stockholder of the Company. The carrying amounts of these items approximate fair value as of December 31, 2020 and June 30, 2021 due to their short-term nature.


Concentration of Credit Risk


Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentration of credit risk consist of cash. All of the Company’s cash (which was nominal at December 31, 2020 and at June 30, 2021) was deposited in one account at a financial institution, and the account balance may at times exceed federally insured limits. Management believes that the Company is not exposed to significant credit risk due to the financial strength of the depository institution in which the cash is held.


Prepaid Expenses


Prepaid expenses represent costs incurred that benefit future periods. These costs are amortized over specific time periods based on the agreements.


Research and Development Expenses


Substantially all of the Company’s research and development expenses consist of expenses incurred in connection with the development of the Company’s product candidates. These expenses include fees paid to third parties to conduct certain research and development activities on the Company’s behalf, consulting costs, costs for laboratory supplies, product acquisition and license costs, certain payroll and personnel-related expenses, including salaries and bonuses, employee benefit costs and stock-based compensation expenses for the Company’s research and product development employees and allocated overheads, including information technology costs and utilities and expenses for issuance of shares pursuant to the anti-dilution clause in the purchase of IPR&D technology. The Company expenses both internal and external research and development expenses as they are incurred.


General and Administrative Expenses


General and administrative expenses represent personnel costs for employees involved in general corporate functions, including finance, accounting, legal and human resources, among others. Additional costs included in general and administrative expenses consist of professional fees for legal (including patent costs), audit and other consulting services, stock-based compensation and other general corporate overhead expenses as well as costs from a service agreement with a related party (See Note 6).


Patent Costs


The Company expenses all costs as incurred in connection with patent licenses and applications (including direct application fees, and the legal and consulting expenses related to making such applications) and such costs are reflected in general and administrative expenses in the statements of operations.


Stock-Based Compensation


The Company accounts for stock-based compensation for all share-based payments made to employees and non-employees by estimating the fair value on the date of grant and recognizing compensation expense over the requisite service period on a straight-line basis. The Company recognizes forfeitures related to stock-based compensation as they occur. The Company estimates the fair value of stock options using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. The Black-Scholes model requires the input of subjective assumptions, including expected common stock volatility, expected dividend yield, expected term, risk-free interest rate, and the estimated fair value of the underlying common stock on the date of grant.


Common Stock Valuations


The Company is required to periodically estimate the fair value of common stock when issuing stock options and computing their estimated stock-based compensation expense. The fair value of common stock was determined on a periodic basis, with the assistance of an independent third-party valuation expert. The assumptions underlying these valuations represented Management’s best estimates, which involved inherent uncertainties and the application of significant levels of Management judgment.


In order to determine the fair value, the Company considered, among other things, contemporaneous transactions involving the sale of the Company’s common stock to unrelated third parties; the lack of marketability of the Company’s common stock; and the market performance of comparable publicly traded companies.


Income Taxes


The Company accounts for corporate income taxes in accordance with GAAP as stipulated in ASC, Topic 740, Income Taxes, (“ASC 740”). This standard entails the use of the asset and liability method of computing the provision for income tax expense. Current tax expense results from corporate tax payable at the Federal and California jurisdictions for the Company, which relate to the current accounting period. Deferred tax expense results primarily from temporary differences between financial statement and tax return reporting, which result in additional tax payable in future periods. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the differences between the financial statement basis and tax basis of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates and law. Net future tax benefits are subject to a valuation allowance when management expects that it is more-likely-than-not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.


Current and non-current tax assets and liabilities are based upon an estimate of taxes refundable or payable for each of the jurisdictions in which the Company is subject to tax. In the ordinary course of business there is inherent uncertainty in quantifying income tax positions. The Company assess income tax positions and record the largest amount of tax benefit with a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement with a taxing authority that has full knowledge of all relevant information. For those income tax positions where it is not more likely than not that a tax benefit will be sustained, no tax benefit is recognized in the financial statements. The Company’s policy is to recognize interest or penalties related to income tax matters in income tax expense.


Comprehensive Loss


Comprehensive loss includes all changes in equity (net assets) during a period from non-owner sources. There were no elements of other comprehensive income (loss) in the periods presented, as a result comprehensive loss is the same as net loss for each period presented.


Net Loss per Share


Basic net loss per common share is calculated by dividing the net loss by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period, without consideration of potentially dilutive securities. Diluted net loss per share is computed by dividing the net loss by the weighted-average number of common shares and potentially dilutive securities outstanding for the period. For purposes of the diluted net loss per share calculation, common stock options are considered to be potentially dilutive securities. Basic and diluted net loss per share is presented in conformity with the two-class method required for participating securities. The Company has no participating securities and as such, the net loss was attributed entirely to common stockholders. As the Company has reported a net loss for all periods presented, diluted net loss per common share is the same as basic net loss per common share for those periods. All common share amounts and per share amounts have been adjusted to reflect a 1-for-4.3 reverse stock split of the Company’s common stock that was effectuated on June 21, 2021.


Recent Accounting Pronouncements


From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) or other standard setting bodies and adopted by the Company as of the specified effective date. Unless otherwise discussed, the impact of recently issued standards that are not yet effective are not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s financial position or results of operations upon adoption.


In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06, Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity, which simplifies the accounting for convertible instruments. ASU 2020-06 eliminates certain models that require separate accounting for embedded conversion features. Additionally, among other changes, the guidance eliminates certain of the conditions for equity classification for contracts in an entity’s own equity. The guidance also requires entities to use the if-converted method for all convertible instruments in the diluted earnings per share calculation and include the effect of share settlement for instruments that may be settled in cash or shares, except for certain liability-classified share-based payment awards. This guidance is effective for the Company beginning in the first quarter of 2022 and must be applied using either a modified or full retrospective approach. Early adoption is permitted, but no earlier than annual periods beginning after December 15, 2020. The Company is currently evaluating the impact this guidance will have on its financial statements.


In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). This ASU requires a lessee to recognize in the statement of financial position a liability to make lease payments (the lease liability) and a right-of-use asset representing its right to use the underlying asset for the leases with a term of greater than 12 months. This ASU is effective for the Company’s fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, with early adoption permitted. The Company has adopted this standard effective as of January 1, 2019. The Company chose to adopt the package of practical expedients available from the FASB. As a policy election, the Company chose to expense and amortize, on a straight line, the leases with terms less than 12 months. The adoption of this standard did not have a material effect on the Company’s financial statements.